On December 8, 2010, a federal judge for the US District Court for the North District of California dismissed a lawsuit challenging the ban on affirmative action in California's public universities. California voters approved Proposition 209, prohibiting discrimination or preferential treatment, in 1996. The Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action and By Any Means Necessary filed the suit, arguing that Prop 209 violated the Equal Protection Clause of the US Constitution, but the California Supreme Court upheld Prop 209 in August 2010. Affirmative action has been a contentious issue in college and law school admissions, and the US Supreme Court heard oral arguments in an affirmative action case in October 2012.
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