On September 14, 2005, a federal judge in for the US District Court for the Eastern District of California ruled that the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance in public schools is unconstitutional. The court held that the inclusion of the words "under God" was a violation of the Establishment Clause of the US Constitution. The case was originally brought by Michael Newdow, who had brought the litigation on behalf of several families. The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit later overturned the decision. Michael Newdow had challenged the practice on behalf of several families
Learn more about the Establishment Clause from Cornell University's Legal Information Institute, and about Michael Newdown from the JURIST news archive.
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