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American history, and the development of American cultural identities, cannot adequately be explained without a thorough discussion of racial discrimination. The following is an overview some notorious, and notable, events. The Naturalization Act of 1798 required that applicants for US citizenship live in America for five years prior to date of application and required fourteen years in the US before the application could be approved. In 1823, the US Supreme Court decided in Johnson v. M'Intosh that Native Americans merely held the right of occupancy to their land, and could not convey title to any party other than the US. US President Andrew Jackson equated Native Americans to children and considered their relocation under the Indian Removal Act of 1830 as necessary for their well-being. One particular relocation effort, the 1838 Trail of Tears, resulted in the deaths of approximately 8,000 Cherokee Indians and African-Americans. In 1851, Congress passed the

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Timeline

04/22/2014: Supreme Court upheld Michigan affirmative action ban.

06/24/2013: Supreme Court sent Texas affirmative action case back to lower court.

11/06/2012: Oklahoma voters approved affirmative action ban.

04/02/2012: Ninth Circuit upheld California affirmative action ban.

11/02/2010: Arizona voters approved amendment banning affirmative action.

11/02/2010: Arizona voters approved amendment banning affirmative action.

08/02/2010: California high court ruled affirmative action ban constitutional.

08/02/2010: California high court ruled affirmative action ban constitutional.

11/05/2008: Affirmative action ban passed in Nebraska.

11/06/2006: Michigan voters approved affirmative action restriction.

 ...[more]

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