On June 4, 1965, US President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a commencement address at Howard University in Washington, DC, that applauded efforts by the federal government to address race discrimination. Despite these efforts, however, the president stressed that the job was far from being complete. Though President Johnson did not explicitly use the phrase "affirmative action" in the address, he articulated the general policy behind such programs: "Freedom is not enough. You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of a race and then say, 'you are free to compete with all the others,' and still justly believe that you have been completely fair. Thus it is not enough to just open the gates of opportunity. All our citizens must have the ability to walk through those gates." According to President Johnson, achieving racial


6/24/2013: Supreme Court remanded affirmative action case back to lower court

3/25/2013: Supreme Court granted certiorari to hear new affirmative action case

11/15/2012: Sixth Circuit ruled Michigan ban on affirmative action unconstitutional

11/6/2012: Oklahoma voters approved ban on affirmative action

10/10/2012: Supreme Court heard oral arguments in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin

11/6/2012: Oklahoma voters abolished use of affirmative action

2/21/2012: Supreme Court granted certiorari to hear Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin


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