Another facet of this conflict was its enormous human and economic cost. As of November 30, 2011, the Brookings Institute estimated that 4,486 American troops were killed, 32,226 American troops were wounded, 179 British troops died, and approximately 115,000 Iraqi civilians were killed. Financially, the war is estimated to have cost the US approximately US$3 trillion in total economic loss.
The Iraq War also created domestic and international controversies, plaguing the administrations of presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama and leaving many unanswered legal questions. Long after the battlefield conflict ended in December 2011, the war's legacy continued to play out in courtrooms, legislatures and the international community.