Following the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, the Indonesian government placed restrictions on the international transport of minors and required guards at refugee camps in an effort to thwart potential child trafficking. The UN and the Indonesian government jointly established child registration checkpoints as a way to prevent child trafficking. The Sri Lankan government, also in an attempt to reduce instances of child trafficking following the tsunami, placed a temporary hold on a child adoptions.
In regions where the potential for child trafficking is particularly high, countries can be spurred to action following the requests of other world leaders. When the US State Department threatened sanctions against Togo due to its lack of concern regarding child trafficking, the Togolese government passed a law in August 2005 increasing prison time and fines for those convicted of the practice.
Following allegations of organ trafficking by international human rights groups, China passed a law banning the sale of human organs in May 2007. In Europe, Human Rights Watch (HRW) urged Kosovo and Albania to open investigations to determine the veracity of claims that the Kosovo Liberation Army trafficked in organs harvested from Serbian prisoners taken during 1998-1999 Kosovo war. While the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe launched an investigation into the organ trafficking allegations in June 2008, Albania refused to initiate its own investigation. In February 2011, the UN Special Representative to Kosovo called for an independent investigation into Kosovan organ trafficking allegations to be spearheaded by the UN Security Council.
Noting the changing forms of slavery, including the rise in global sex trafficking, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon insisted, in March 2010, that countries renew their commitment to combat the practice. The Community Court of Justice of the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) heard testimony in April 2008 from a woman stating that the Niger government failed to enforce a May 2003 law criminalizing slavery. The woman, Hadijatou Mani Koraou, had been sold into slavery as a child and then forced to remain her master's wife even after he granted her freedom. In October 2008, the court found the Niger government liable a ruling binding for all ECOWAS member states and ordered restitution equivalent to approximately USD $20,000.
In an attempt at transparency and regulation, Hungary began licensing sex workers in September 2007. Critics argued that such licensing violated an UN human trafficking treaty from 1950. Convicted and sentenced by the War Crimes Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina in November 2009, a former Serbian military leader was found guilty of multiple atrocities, including sexual slavery and rape. In January 2010, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled that countries complicit in sex trafficking violate Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which forbids slavery and forced labor.